All processes in our body are controlled by chemical reactions, which are regulated by a variety of hormones.
The hormones produced by the adrenal cortex are called corticosteroids (from the Latin cortex -. “Bark”). Much of the credit belongs to their study of Canadian physician Hans Selye. In 1930-ies. he held a series of experiments on rats and found that the effect of any stress factors – cold, heat or fear – provoking their reaction is always the same: increased physical activity and endurance.
In this case the test animals showed an increase in the adrenal cortex and the allocation of these bodies of some unknown substance.
This substance was later called “cortisone” and became the first open group of hormone steroids.
A little later they were found and others: hydrocortisone, corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol. It turned out that they have not only a similar structure, but a similar effect: in moments of stress activates the body’s functions, to combat adverse factors, and inhibit the “unnecessary” features that are not directly involved in solving the problem.
The former include the heart, brain and muscle activity, to the second – the process of digestion, inflammatory response, production of sex hormones, and so on..
After a few years, American scientists Hench and Kendall have shown that high doses of corticosteroids have a pronounced anti-inflammatory activity.
It was found that as a result of their action in the body:
It slowed down the process of cell destruction,
suppressed immune system response,
reduced water binding of the affected tissues,
It decreases the permeability of the vessel walls to allergens.
The first steroid was based on cortisone and actively used in the treatment of rheumatoid diseases. In 50-ies. was replaced by a synthetic analogue – Prednisone, has higher efficiency and fewer side effects. List of indications for the use of the new medication expanded. Doctors began to prescribe prednisone in asthma, for relief of severe allergic attacks (anaphylaxis, angioedema), severe exacerbations of allergic skin diseases (psoriasis, pemphigus, atopic dermatitis, eczema, etc.).
Features internal use
In application of Prednisone have 3 basic rules.
It is not used to prevent;
not apply if there is an alternative in the form of other, non-steroidal, drug;
used only on doctor’s advice.
Produced Prednisone as ointments, tablets, injections, eye and ear drops.
Assigning a particular formulation depends on the type of disease, its severity and course of the patient’s age.
Injections are used as emergency assistance measures in anaphylactic shock, acute attacks of food allergies, pustular psoriasis, accompanied by fever. The drug is administered intravenously or intramuscularly every 4-6 hours for several days.
Momentary Prednisone with angioedema.
After many days of parenteral (injectable) treatment, following the principle of gradual abolition of steroid agents, the patient is transferred to oral therapy (tablets intake). Dosages physician individually selected, depending upon the patient’s age and clinical disease. The general course of the medication in such cases lasts 10-14 days.
The indications for the use of tablet forms of the drug are also heavily occurring chronic diseases, such as asthma or urticaria. In bronchial asthma, hormone therapy is conducted over several weeks or months.
Prolonged use of Prednisone can cause the body gets used to the flow of external corticosteroid and cease to produce their own.
The drug is prescribed in a “mini-pulse” mode: the next day, but twice daily dose. This method avoids the suppression of adrenocortical function and reduce the risk of side effects. Upon reaching the planned effect of the dose is reduced to a minimum, then all means cancel.
Treatment with prednisolone hives spend as short course – within 3-4 days.
By means of a corticosteroid is resorted to only in case if the patient is not marked improvements while taking antihistamines.
In allergic diseases of the eyelids, conjunctiva, ear canal, sinuses instill prescribed Prednisone 0.3-0.5% solution for 10-14 days. The frequency of application – 3-4 times per day. In severe cases, your doctor may recommend the use of the drug every 2 hours.
In dermatology widely practiced 0.5% prednisolone ointment. Indications for its purpose are a serious form of inflammatory and allergic skin diseases, for which the non-steroidal therapy ineffective external agents.
The most commonly used prednisolone ointment for psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, eczema, seborrheic dermatitis and pemphigus. Due to the rather weak anti-inflammatory action of the drug is only recommended for the treatment of facial skin sensitive areas of the neck, elbow and knee bends, groin. On the trunk, limbs and scalp, doctors recommend steroids applied to the higher activity.
Apply means strictly prescribed by a doctor 3-4 times a day for no longer than 10 days. The dosage is determined empirically: it is considered that 0.5 g of ointment is sufficient to treat 2 palm-sized adult. Measure the right amount of the patient can with the help of a nail phalanx of the index finger. The strip of ointment extruded from a tube with 5 mm diameter and having a length from the finger tip to the nearest joint, weighs approximately 0.5 grams two strips (1 g) was sufficient for coating the entire area of the face or neck.
When atopic dermatitis ointment applied should be immediately after a bath, without drying towel dry. Oily basis helps to prevent evaporation of the liquid through the skin and protects it from drying.
It is not recommended to apply the ointment prednisolone hives and skin diseases, not amenable to topical treatment with steroids (with ichthyosis, pink zoster, vasculitis, infectious pathologies). In these cases, use of the medicament can not simply improve the patient’s health, but also exacerbate the problem.